Jizya is the exorbitant poll tax imposed on non-Muslims or dhimmis (non-Muslims aren't slaughtered but don't convert to Islam are dhimmis, a sub-class status denied basic human rights). In sharia law, jizya refers either to tribute paid by non-Muslim nations to ward off jihad attack, or to a head tax paid by conquered non-Muslim adult males living under Islamic conditions.
Fight such of those to whom the Scriptures were given as believe in neither God nor the Last Day, who do not forbid what God and His apostle have forbidden, and do not embrace the true Faith, until they pay the tribute by hand with abject submission. (Koran 9:29)
- From "The Dhimmi" by Bat Ye'or: The dhimmi [non-believer] had to pay a poll tax, the jizya (Koran 9:29), which was assessed at three rates in accordance with the economic condition of each individual male above puberty. According to some jurists, this poll tax was to be paid by each person individually at a humiliating public ceremony in whic the dhimmi, while paying it, was struck either on the head or on the nape of the neck. However, Abu Yusuf Ya'qub (d. 798) recommended clemency and justice in the collection of the jizya. Women, paupers, minors, the chronically sick and the crippled were theoretically exempted from this tax. When oppressive taxation provoked a wave of conversions to Islam, the administration imposed a collective sum on each dhimmi community which their notables apportioned between them, irrespective of their numbers. Possession of the receipt for the jizya - originally a piece of parchment worn around the neck or a seal worn on the wrist or on the chest - enabled the dhimmi to move from place to place. A dhimmi traveling without this receipt could be put in jail. The seal of the jizya, characteristic of the dhimmi, was soon regarded as a mark of dishonor. (page 53-54)
One reason why the population of the Middle East is largely Islamic is due to the jizya. To be a dhimmi in Islamic society was to be lower than a second-class citizen. As a result, dhimmis (non-believers) were subjugated to harsh social segregation and political violence. Many non-believers converted to Islam to escape such treatment which led to over the years a decline in non-Muslim communities. The Christian Copts for example were once the majority in Egypt . . . now they are a persecuted minority with no rights or privileges. Though Muslims no longer enforce the jizya on non-believers anymore the social status of dhimmitude is still in effect. (more here)
Throughout history it was the jizya the financed Islamic military campaigns of conquest.
EGYPTIAN CLERIC: "AMERICAN AID TO EGYPT IS A MANDATORY TAX"
Imam Khaled Said, the official spokesman for the country's Salafi Front, an extremist political party that has called for strict Sharia law in Egypt, has told Egyptian television viewers that U.S. aid to Egypt is "mandatory" and should be seen as "a tribute that America pays to honor the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian revolution".
Said's remarks came after Secretary of State John Kerry announced that the U.S. has allocated another $250 million in aid to Egypt.
In comments translated by the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), he said "They must pay reparations for destroying our country and the Islamic nation – them and others in the West – so that we will agree to cooperate with them."